DNA Testing – What You Can
Starting Your Test
4TRUTH IDENTITY will start your test as soon as the following have been
- DNA Samples from all parties in the test
- Full payment
4TRUTH IDENTITY offers some of the fastest DNA paternity testing anywhere. We
offer 911DNA RUSH testing options that guarantee results on the following business day and our routine
turnaround times are generally within three to five business days. These turnaround times are based on DNA testing
with cheek swab samples only. With any biological testing, however, exceptions can occur. There are a few reasons
why your test might not be completed in the typical time:
Sample failure – There is always a risk, though slight, of a sample not containing
enough DNA for the test. This is due to collection error or the client’s mouth conditions (dry mouth, excessive
tobacco usage, etc.).
Single exclusion – We routinely compare sixteen (16) different DNA systems including
CODIS (13)between the mother, child, and alleged father. When just one of the DNA systems we examine reveals a
mismatch between the alleged father and child, we call this outcome a single exclusion. We cannot conclude
paternity or non-paternity without further testing.
Further testing will reveal either:
1. More exclusionary DNA systems, excluding the alleged father, or
2. More matching DNA systems, indicating that the single exclusion is a mutational event. A mutational event is
a naturally occurring event and does not mean that either the father or child has any medical problem.
Double exclusion – We can normally call a test an exclusion if there are at least two
exclusionary DNA systems between the alleged father and child. However, if the two exclusionary systems reveal data
that are only one number apart, there is a remote possibility that a double-mutational event occurred. This is
extremely rare, but since it can occur, we have to perform additional testing to give the client a conclusive
result. With further testing, the same two options as for a single exclusion (described in #2, above) are
Low Paternity Index – If all the DNA systems we examine match between the alleged father and
child, usually the result indicates a 99.9% probability of paternity. Sometimes, however, the genes shared between
the alleged father and child are so common that the probability of paternity doesn’t reach 99%. Further testing
will likely reveal additional matches and will increase the probability to a minimum of 99%. Another cause of low
paternity index is if no race is submitted on either the alleged father or mother.
4TRUTH IDENTITY’s testing laboratory assumes that the alleged fathers are unrelated men. Clients must notify
4TRUTH IDENTITY in advance if the potential fathers are related (i.e. brothers, father and son, first cousins,
etc). In such cases, additional testing will may be required.
4TRUTH IDENTITY’s testing laboratory only releases conclusive paternity test results. We know our clients depend
on us to give accurate and reliable results. The test results can be used to change our clients’ lives, and we
take that very seriously. We will only release our results when we are absolutely confident that they are
Please note that self-collected paternity tests require a witness
signature on the Authorization Form. The American Association of Blood Banks requires a witness to the collection
process, even though the test results cannot be used as legal evidence in a court of law. The witness must sign the
Authorization Form at the time of sample collection.
Doctor’s Order or Court Order Requirement
The New York State Department of Health requires that a Doctor’s Order or Court Order be submitted for each DNA
identification test where a tested party is a resident of New York. Please provide either of these documents at the
time samples are returned for testing. This requirement is also specific to self-collected tests.
Once you have your results, the following explanation can be helpful in explaining the meaning of the data.
The DNA paternity results are summarized in the report's Interpretation section. The results are explained in one
of two ways:
1. The alleged father is excluded as being the biological father of the child
2. The alleged father cannot be excluded as being the biological father of the child, and the probability of
paternity is > 99.0%
The "numbers" section of the report reveals the DNA patterns of the individuals tested. People have two genetic
markers, or numbers, for each DNA system analyzed. One genetic marker was inherited from the mother, and the other
genetic marker was inherited from the father. The order in which the genetic markers appear is insignificant. If
the combined paternity index is a non-zero number, there is a “match” between the alleged father and child. If the
combined paternity index is a zero, it is a “non-match” between the alleged father and child. A zero means that the
alleged father is excluded as being the biological father of the child. A non-zero number means that the
probability of paternity is over 99%.
Receiving Your Results
4TRUTH IDENTITY offers you several options for receiving your results, which are listed on the Authorization Form
you completed during sample collection.
Changing Contact Information
It is important to submit the correct information at the time your samples are collected. In order to protect your
confidentiality after samples have been taken, you may only change your contact information (i.e. mailing address,
email address, phone or fax number, etc.) in writing and with proof of your identity.
If you have any questions about your test, please call us. Thank you for choosing 4TRUTH IDENTITY.